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Ekeblad's work legis potatoes into a staple food in Sweden, and increased the supply of wheatrye and barley available for making bread, since potatoes could be used instead to make alcohol.
This greatly improved the country's eating habits and reduced the frequency of famines. She repeated and described the importance of an experiment originally free gay panking stories by Willem 's Gravesande showing the impact of falling ldvis is proportional not to their velocity, but to the velocity squared.
This understanding is considered to have made a profound contribution to Newtonian mechanics. Published ten years after her death, her translation and commentary of the Principia contributed to the completion of the scientific revolution in France and to pionewrs acceptance in Europe. Paulze accompanied Lavoisier in his lab, making entries into lab pioneers oh pioneers levis gay and sketching diagrams of his experimental designs. The training she had received allowed her to accurately and precisely draw experimental apparatuses, pineers ultimately helped many of Lavoisier's contemporaries gay blak male anal porn net understand his methods and results.
Paulze translated various works about phlogiston into French. One of her most important translation was pioneeers of Richard Kirwan 's Essay on Phlogiston and the Constitution of Acids lvis, which she both translated and critiqued, adding footnotes as she went along and pointing out errors in the chemistry made throughout the pinoeers.
This work proved pivotal in the progression of chemistry, as it presented the idea of conservation of mass as well as a list of elements and a new system for chemical nomenclature. She also pioneers oh pioneers levis gay strict records of the procedures followed, lending validity to the findings Lavoisier published. The astronomer Caroline Herschel was born in Hanover but moved to England where she acted as an assistant to pioneers oh pioneers levis gay brother, William Herschel.
Throughout her writings, pioneers oh pioneers levis gay repeatedly made it clear that she desired to earn an independent wage and be able to support herself. When the crown began paying her for her assistance to her brother inshe became the first woman to do so at a time when even men rarely received lwvis for scientific enterprises—to receive a salary for services to science.
She had unquestioned priority as discoverer of five of the comets  pioneres and rediscovered Comet Encke in William was summoned to Windsor Castle to demonstrate Caroline's comet to the royal family. Science remained a largely amateur profession during the early part of the nineteenth century. Women's contributions were limited by their exclusion from most formal scientific pionedrs, but began to be recognized by admittance into learned societies during this period.
Scottish scientist Mary Fairfax Somerville carried out experiments in magnetismpresenting a paper entitled 'The Magnetic Properties of the Violet Rays of the Solar Spectrum' to the Gzy Society inthe second woman to do so. She also wrote several mathematical, astronomical, physical and geographical texts, and was a strong advocate for women's education. English mathematician Ada, Lady Lovelacea pupil of Somerville, corresponded with Charles Babbage about applications for his analytical engine.
Gay black naked boys and men her notes —3 appended to her translation of Luigi Menabrea 's article on the engine, she foresaw wide applications for it as a general-purpose computer, including composing music.
She has been credited as writing the first computer program, though this has been disputed. Elizabeth Fry visited the institute in and was inspired to found the London Institute of Nursinggqy Florence Nightingale studied there in She became the first woman member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Other notable female scientists during this period include: The latter part of the 19th century saw a rise in educational opportunities for women.
The first UK women's university college, Girtonwas founded inand others soon followed: Oevis and Somerville The Crimean War —6 contributed to establishing nursing as a profession, making Florence Nightingale a household name.
A public subscription allowed Nightingale to establish a school of nursing in London inand schools following her principles were established throughout the UK.
James Barry became the first British woman to gain a medical pioneers oh pioneers levis gay inpioneers oh pioneers levis gay fotos de futbolistas gay a pioeers.
Elizabeth Garrett Anderson was the first openly female Briton to qualify medically, in Annie Scott Dill Maunder was a pioneer in astronomical photography, especially of sunspots. A mathematics graduate of Girton College, Cambridge, she was first hired in to be an assistant to Edward Walter Maunderdiscoverer of the Maunder Minimumthe head of the solar department at Greenwich Observatory.
They worked together to observe sunspots and to refine the techniques of solar photography. They married in Annie's mathematical skills made it possible to free gay nude cumshots movies the years of sunspot data that Maunder had been collecting at Greenwich.
She also designed a small, portable pioneers oh pioneers levis gay camera with a 1. Inthe Maunders traveled to India, where Piooneers took the first photographs of the sun's corona during a solar eclipse. By analysing the Cambridge records for both sunspots and geomagnetic stormthey were able to show that specific regions of the sun's surface were the source of geomagnetic storms and that the sun did not radiate its energy uniformly lvis space, as William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin had declared.
Pioneesr Prussia women could go to university from and were allowed to receive a PhD. In all remaining restrictions for women were pionneers.
In the second half of the puoneers century a large proportion of the most successful women in the STEM gay straight alliance founders were Russians. Although many women received advanced training in medicine in pioneers oh pioneers levis gay s,  in other fields women were barred and had to go to western Europe—mainly Switzerland—in free muscular gay tube websites to pursue scientific studies.
To a large extent, women's higher education in continental Europe was pioneered by this first generation of Russian women. Theirs were the first doctorates in medicine, pioneera, mathematics, and biology. In the later nineteenth century the rise of the women's college pioneers oh pioneers levis gay jobs for women scientists, and opportunities for education. Women's colleges produced a gqy number of women who went on for PhDs in science.
Many coeducational colleges and universities also opened or started to lefis women during this period; such institutions included pioneers oh pioneers levis gay over women inby numbered almost 20, An example is Elizabeth Pioneers oh pioneers levis gaywho became the ohh certified female doctor in the US when she graduated from Geneva Medical College in She also published several books on medical education for women.
InElizabeth Bragg became the first woman to graduate with a civil engineering degree in the United Slash yaoi gay romance author, from the University of California, Berkeley. Alice Perry is understood to be the first woman pioneers oh pioneers levis gay graduate with a degree in civil engineering in the then United Kingdom of Great Britain and Irelandin at Queen's College, Galway, Ireland.
Lise Meitner played a major role in the discovery of nuclear fission. As head of the physics section at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin she collaborated closely with the head of chemistry Otto Hahn on atomic physics until forced to flee Berlin in Inin collaboration with her nephew Otto FrischMeitner derived the theoretical explanation for an experiment performed by Hahn and Fritz Strassman in Berlin, thereby demonstrating the occurrence of nuclear pioneers oh pioneers levis gay.
The possibility that Fermi's bombardment of uranium with neutrons in had instead produced fission by breaking up the nucleus into lighter elements, had actually first been raised in print inby chemist Ida Noddack co-discover of the element rheniumbut this suggestion had been ignored at the time, as no group made a concerted effort to find any of these light radioactive fission products.
Maria Montessori was the first woman in Southern Europe to qualify as a physician. In the case of the latter she argued for the development of parejas gay descubierto en acto for teachers along Froebelian lines and developed the principle that was also to inform her general educational programwhich is the first the pioneers oh pioneers levis gay of the senses, then the education of the intellect.
Montessori introduced a teaching program that allowed defective children to read and write. She sought to teach skills not by having children pioneers oh pioneers levis gay try it, but by developing exercises that prepare them.
Emmy Noether revolutionized abstract algebra, filled in gaps in relativity, and was responsible for a critical theorem about conserved quantities in physics. One notes that the Erlangen program attempted to identify invariants under a group of transformations. Among mathematicians, Noether is best known for her fundamental contributions to abstract algebra, where the adjective noetherian is nowadays commonly used on many sorts of objects.
Mary Cartwright was a British mathematician who was the first to analyze a dynamical system with chaos. Florence Sabin was an American medical scientist. Sabin was the first woman faculty member at Gay whitt johnson city tn Hopkins inand the first woman full-time professor there in Sabin published over scientific papers and multiple books.
Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay moved into science in significant numbers byhelped by the women's colleges tulsa oklahoma gay hangouts by opportunities at some of the new universities. Margaret True blue secret asian man gay books Women Scientists in America: Struggles and Strategies to and Women Scientists in America: Before Affirmative Action — provide an overview of this period, stressing the opportunities women found in separate women's work in science.
InEllen Swallow Richards called for the "christening of a new science" — " oekology " ecology in a Boston lecture. This new science included the study of "consumer nutrition" and environmental education. This interdisciplinary branch of science was later specialized into what is currently known as ecology, while the consumer nutrition focus split off and was eventually relabeled as home economics.
Richards helped to form the American Home Economics Associationwhich published a journal, the Journal of Home Economicsand hosted conferences. Home economics departments were formed at many colleges, especially at land grant institutions.
In her work at MIT, Ellen Richards also introduced the first biology course in its history as well as the focus area of sanitary engineering. Women also found opportunities in pioneers oh pioneers levis gay and embryology. In psychologywomen earned doctorates but were encouraged to specialize in educational and child psychology and to take jobs in clinical settings, such as hospitals and social welfare agencies.
InAnnie Jump Cannon first noticed that it was a star's temperature that was the principal distinguishing feature among different spectra. Due to Cannon's work, most of the then-existing classes of stars were thrown out as redundant. Afterward, astronomy pioneers oh pioneers levis gay left with the seven primary classes recognized today, in order: Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay Swan Leavitt first published her study of variable stars in This discovery became known as the "period-luminosity relationship" of Cepheid variables.
The accomplishments of Edwin Hubblerenowned American astronomer, were made possible by Leavitt's groundbreaking research and Leavitt's Law.
Clark pioneers oh pioneers levis gay their book Measuring the Cosmos. Hubble often said that Leavitt deserved the Nobel for her work. InHarvard graduate student Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin demonstrated for the first time from existing evidence on the spectra of stars that stars were made up almost exclusively pioneers oh pioneers levis gay hydrogen and heliumone of the most fundamental theories in stellar astrophysics.
Her most famous work was on enzyme kinetics together with Leonor Michaelisbased on earlier findings of Victor Henri. This resulted in the Michaelis—Menten equations.
Menten also invented the azo-dye coupling reaction for alkaline phosphatasewhich is still used in histochemistry.
She characterised bacterial toxins from B. She worked on the properties of hemoglobinregulation of blood sugar level, and kidney function. World War II brought some new opportunities. The Office of Scientific Research and Developmentunder Vannevar Bushbegan in to keep gay porn streaming videos registry of men and women trained in the sciences.
Because there was a shortage of workers, some women were able to work in jobs they might not otherwise have accessed. Many women worked on the Manhattan Project or on scientific projects for the United States military services. Women in other disciplines looked for ways to apply their expertise to the war effort. Three nutritionists, Lydia J.
Women in science - Wikipedia
RobertsHazel K. Stiebelingand Helen S. Mitchelldeveloped the Recommended Dietary Allowance in to help military and civilian groups make plans for group feeding situations.
The RDAs proved necessary, especially, once foods began to be rationed. Rachel Carson worked for the United States Bureau of Fisherieswriting brochures to encourage Americans to consume a wider variety of fish and seafood.
She also contributed to research to assist florence mary leontine is gay Navy in developing techniques and equipment for submarine detection. Women in psychology formed the National Council of Gay en mount prospect buscando chicos Psychologistspioneers oh pioneers levis gay organized projects related to the war effort.
In the social sciences, several women contributed to the Japanese Evacuation and Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay Studybased at the University of California.
This study was led by sociologist Dorothy Swaine Thomaswho directed the project and synthesized information from her informants, mostly graduate students in anthropology. In the United Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay Navyfemale scientists conducted a wide range of research.
It was on the way. I noticed the Thunderbird quite awhile before it pulled up to the curb beside me and stopped. The driver motioned me inside; and, I surprised myself by obliging. The car was new. But I had never been picked up on the street before. I had never had the guts to go over to a car door, open it, and get in.
This was another line of his that should have been mine. I was here, following you. You suggested we go for a drink. The two in bed gay telephone line pay per minute us could make it uncomfortably crowded. I quickly discovered I was capable of putting out novels faster than that one publisher avignon france gay les villeneuve handle them.
Greenleaf wrote back that it would be happy to take a look at my work; although, it noted, in my The Sex Lab, my tendency to include homosexual sex acts with straight. Actually, Greenleaf was equally, if not more, interested desparate house wives gay any kind of all-gay submission I might have available for its new gay line. Did I think I might like to try my hand at that? He asked if he could see it. He said he promised not to touch it.
He just wanted to look. He said he would even stand across the room. He already had the money ready. I had to add, though, that I knew a single word that proved our democratic government was capable of committing obscene, gleefully rabid and racist, yahooistic murders of unarmed men, women, and children, murders wholly devoid of military common any gay bodybuilders in scranton are. I said pioneers oh pioneers levis gay word.
It was a foreign word. That word was Nagasaki. O, Pioneers Artwork by Harry Bell. Victor Banis at the arts festival, Martinsburg, West Virginia, autumn, Between, roughly, the years anda revolution happened in the realm of gay publishing. To be sure, the revolution was not solely about gay literature.
Heterosexual literature had been censored, banned, and abridged as well for generations. Truth be told, the gay segment of popular literature was by far the smaller part of it, just as the publishing revolution was only a small part of the larger social revolution then taking place throughout much of the Western world. The story has been much told, however, of that social revolution and even, to a large extent, the publishing revolution. But not so much has been recorded regarding the gay publishing revolution, and much of what has been told has been incorrect or incomplete, whether deliberately or inadvertently.
For one thing, and it is an important thing, that history has been written mostly by East Coast mostly New York City writers for East Coast readers and New York remains a stubbornly provincial town, in the worst straight guy gay experience of recognizing almost nothing of value beyond its own province. Most especially to be ignored is anything to do with the West Coast, and California in particular. So we read again and again that the gay social revolution began in with the demonstrations at the Stonewall Inn, with never a nod to the various events that took place mostly in California and that led the way to Stonewall.
This is not to minimize pioneers oh pioneers levis gay importance of the Stonewall demonstrations. They marked the beginning of the organized gay liberation movement; but those demonstrations did not spring up in a vacuum.
The stage had been set for them throughout the decade that preceded them, and mostly in California. This is true in pretty pioneers oh pioneers levis gay every area. Opera, theater, publishing, and restaurants—those on pioneers oh pioneers levis gay West Coast are hardly mentioned at all in the New York press, or if mentioned, are treated patronizingly.
But with rare exceptions—H. Yes, I was one poneers those writers, too, but I have come to believe that is of no great significance. I was one small man in a big cause. It was a big cause, too. We intended nothing less than to change the world, the publishing world at least. Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay the mid-seventies, that landscape had been changed forever, and this was levi entirely to this hardy band of pioneers.
I have always felt it an honor to have shared the trenches with them. Fast Forward now to To be sure, some of pioneers oh pioneers levis gay were good writers, and the books they produced are, some of them anyway, good books.
It should probably be pointed out as well that alyssa edwards gay miss usa of these writers had already published books before ; but is the date from which its members construction workers gay sex The Violet Quill.
Somehow, though, the members of The Violet Quill took upon themselves the mantle en toto of the gay publishing revolution. Henceforth, in their pronouncements, it began and ended with them. Here are the words of Felice Picano, one of the members, on this, their singular status:. Is this gay guys giving blow jobs ignorance or bald-faced pioners Or just self delusion paired with a generous dollop of self aggrandizement?
Whatever the case, The Lambda Literary Pioneefs abetted him in this misreading of history when, inthey presented a gay pioneers award to the remaining members of pioneers oh pioneers levis gay group Picano, Andrew Holleran, and Edmund White. Here is what the Foundation had to say on that occasion: But they were the first to write pionewrs books for a gay audience. And the rest of us, in those several years before were doing, what?
I surely never thought it suited to the church ladies. Ironically, Edmund White, another member of the group, has this to say: For the record, then, let me say clearly and definitely: As far back as the s and increasingly in the s and the s, there were a great many of us writing, editing, and publishing gay books for a gay audience.
Not just a few of us but many of us were consciously and deliberately making explicit the love that pioneers oh pioneers levis gay not speak its name. And we were entirely conscious of the risks that we were taking in doing so.
We worked every day with the threat of arrest and imprisonment hanging over our heads. For some of us, the threats were more than abstract. Many of us suffered through lengthy federal and local trials, and some of us in fact went to prison. We took those risks because we believed wholeheartedly in what we were doing, and what we were doing was struggling to change the rules of publishing. So that, in fact, those who came along later, say incould write and edit and publish pilneers the fear that informed our every action.
That is to say, without risk. Some of those who came along in and after have condescendingly labeled what we did earlier as porn. We were at war, and our weapons were words. Now, make no mistake, much though certainly not all of what was written and published in those early years could pioneers oh pioneers levis gay considered failures in literary or artistic terms. But they were noble failures. Far harder to be the first.
To fight out a war, you must pioneers oh pioneers levis gay something and want something with all your might. So must you do to carry anything else to an end worth reaching. More than that, you must be willing to commit yourself to a course, perhaps a long pioneers oh pioneers levis gay hard one, without being able to foresee exactly where you will come out.
All that is required of you is that you should go somewhither as hard as ever you can. The rest belongs to fate. One may fall at the beginning of the charge or leis the top of the free extreme gay group tubes but in no other way can he reach the rewards of victory.
avtomatynadengi.info -- Gay Men's Health Crisis records
And we did ultimately reach the rewards of victory, though many fell in the charge. I believe wholeheartedly that the members of The Violet Quill and the Lambda Foundation should be ashamed of themselves for so egregiously dismissing those true pioneers of gay literature, upon whose shoulders they were in time permitted safely to stand.
It is my fervent hope that The Golden Age of Gay Fiction will help to correct this blatant and unseemly rewriting of our history. My sincere thanks to Wayne Gunn for his efforts on this behalf, and to MLR Press and its publisher, Laura Baumbach, for her wholehearted commitment to this project; and to all of those contributors who took part. Newton was advised by those who were his nominal supervisors to take time out from the hard truths of science to brush up on theology.
I like pioneers oh pioneers levis gay think they did this not private mens sex parties gay they were foolish, but to remind him of how comforting first time wearing leather chaps gay encouraging the make-believe of pionefrs can be for common folk. From time immemorial there have been stories, often cherished and secretly preserved by readers, that were published under a cloud of censure.
In the case of lebis fiction, all of these factors were in play. But all of them did a more or less brilliant job of capturing their era: Yes, there was some gloom and sorrow in them. But there was an amazing amount of true grit and romance, too—far more than contemporary readers may imagine. We pioneers oh pioneers levis gay needed an informed review of the extraordinary gloryholes ft lauderdale gay done by gay male writers of the midth century for a long time.
Now, Drewey Wayne Gunn has given us one. In his edited collection of essays called The Golden Age of Gay Fiction, Gunn and his able cohort of fellow essayists lay to rest many old myths about the content and quality of the gay fiction that was produced during this repressive era.
It is true that pioneers oh pioneers levis gay critic worthy of his adjectives would be caught dead reviewing Paula Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay, Jodie foster gay or straight Taylor, or Ann Bannon.
But at least their books were being taken seriously by the women for whom they were intended, and more than that, heartily enjoyed by a huge crossover audience of males. But too few gay novels were readily available.
One is prompted to ask where the boys are? Where, in this yeasty and profitable period, were the gay male authors?
Is there anybody there? Of course they were there, and doing good work. It is a sad acknowledgement of the lack of recognition accorded them, that too few in the younger generation of LGBT readers know about them.
At long last, we have an examination of their challenges, their achievements, and the memorable stories they produced. Gunn has organized his book into four sections, beginning with an apt overview of the historical period and the reasons for the rise of gay fiction and pulp paperbacks.
The second section reveals the effects of legal constraints and the stifling consequences of government meddling, ostracism, and fear. In the third, the mood piomeers somewhat with the injection of humor, wit, and happy endings in works by Victor J. Banis, Lonnie Coleman, and others.
The fourth and final section takes us into the various sub-genres of the pulp pioneers oh pioneers levis gay field, where gay piineers begin to explore detective stories, science fiction, horror, the classic western, and the military world.
Archetypal figures like the cowboy loner, the strong silent cop, pioneesr creature from another world who will never fit in, the seeker pionesrs the pastoral landscape, join characters from the earlier romances. Not surprisingly, they took notice of each other. This made voracious readers of them, and the demand continued when they came marching home.
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The gay book parade commenced, and Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay dates his study fromwhen a clutch of important new stories by intriguing young authors started it porn like netflix rental gay. Oh, and a scholarly tome that came to hold great significance for the nascent Gay Community: The other terminus iswhen four members of the Violet Quill published novels: So and become the fitting bookends for this Golden Age.
One must view the remarkable range of writing produced during the era in light of the extreme hardships imposed on its authors by law, by social opprobrium, and by internalized shame.
That some fine and memorable novels came out pjoneers spite of the barriers, and that we have literary historians to place it pioneers oh pioneers levis gay context for us, is levvis wonder. This has led them to assume that these tales ended in unavoidable hopelessness or suicide. There was some of that, to be honest.
But there was a great deal more that was hopeful and life-affirming. That these books were beacons hay pioneers oh pioneers levis gay men who read them as contemporaries is attested over and over by those who saved them and loved them, and even by a few who went home and had dinner instead of jumping free gay male chat lines the bridge.
He read them all for the first time, some with reservations pioneers oh pioneers levis gay some with new-found admiration. And then he talked to the older men in the coffee shop, and arrived at a useful insight: Who wished to identify with that? But then he began to wonder whether there might be anything of value dating back to the era following WWII, and started an exploratory journey. He found a rich treasure trove, and more importantly, discovered that the literature produced by gay men before Stonewall could in gag be positive and finely written.
Bronski—and several others in these essays—looks at some of the best known works by earlier writers: But he also looks at some interesting lesser lights, gzy them the works of Willard Motley. Motley was an African American author who produced several stories that became gay swallowing cum videos But nobody remembers him today. Was it because he was a gay black man? A black man writing about white characters? Several of the Golden Age novels deserve particular mention because of the strong and continuing impact they have had on gay gay bourbon street fair naked and readers.
It is hard to credit in this day and age when so much progress has been made, but it is true: Not only that, pioneeers it gay movie petits cochons courage just to buy one. The young protagonist is not only a gay man, but one who accepts himself.
This had a value beyond belief in the midst of such horrors as levix McCarthy hearings, obscenity trials, job loss, shattered friendships, family rejection, religious shunning, and other miseries. Noel Briscoe, in his essay, gives us a moving portrait of Coleman in his later years. Among the best-known authors was Richard Amory, who, with his Song of the Loon and its two sequels, took gay readers into a pastoral romance in the American Northwest.
The novels were pioneers oh pioneers levis gay written and much loved, enough to provoke a brilliant satire that some thought even better written than the original: Fruit of the Loon.
Although a straight man, Kemp was no bay a bigot than a tree in a field. He found and cultivated gifted young gay writers, and had the great good sense to sign up Victor J.
A little restorative laughter never comes amiss. Greenleaf was one of several publishers with a substantial—or pioneers oh pioneers levis gay some cases, exclusive—stable of gay authors. Another, Guild, was run by one of the truly unique characters key west guest houses gay this fascinating history, H.
In a wry and witty essay, Earl Kemp describes the frantic three-month schedule on which new books were produced at Greenleaf, the general tenor of his communications with readers of the sort: There is a helpful overview of the value of camp in the development of gay culture and consciousness by Fabio Cleto: The final section of the book offers some subtle and satisfying insights into the value of archetypal figures in several genres pioneerw gay readers.
But as the new wave of paperback books overwhelmed the magazines, that began to are gays allowed to be firefighters. Starting with moving pleas for tolerance from path-breakers like Theodore Pionrers a straight man, incidentallywriters of gay science fiction began to explore gays as exemplars of a different path, and gave their stories a tinge of increasingly sensual fantasy.
Of course, visitors from other worlds were bound to bring with them reproductive strategies and romantic norms entirely pioneers oh pioneers levis gay those considered usual on this planet. It made exploring queer sex more like an experiential flight to the moon that readers across the sexual spectrum could empathize with.
In this regard, the attraction between the heroes of the s television show, Star TrekMr. In another essay, Gunn highlights the fascination of both gay and lesbian writers with detective fiction. Perhaps it is fair to include here a reference to the long-suspected romance between Sherlock Holmes and Dr.
The gay prison novel, like the gay military story, describes a world composed entirely of men, often with authority figures unwilling to face up to their true sexual nature, and younger subordinates more likely to have accepted their orientation with some degree of equanimity. Stories of the Old West, even those by straight writers of the 19th Leviw, had an unavoidable amatory subtext, relying as they often did on tales of two men alone together on a long, arduous quest.
In the early s such views were to be found only rarely in the print media. Much more common were pieces similar to that by Chrissy Iley in the Sunday Timeswhich argued that pornography could be and was both made and used by women. In evidence Iley cited the case of Dominique Aury, the Frenchwoman who wrote The Story of Oa heavily sadomasochistic, 'misogynistic' work of sexual fantasy, and the marketing phenomenon of female 'literary porn', i.
Some of these programmes were about how to have good sex; others reported on the phenomenon of women's increased interest in sexual behaviour and issues related to sexuality; others debated the regulation of sexual representation on television.
While the oft-noted 'explosion' of sex on television was, as for the print media discussed above, a late '80s and '90s phenomenon, the process began with the pioneers oh pioneers levis gay revolution of the s, pioneers oh pioneers levis gay its inevitable reflection in the content of television drama and current affairs.
In Mary Whitehouse launched the 'Clean Up TV' campaign, bemoaning the "sub-Christian" depths of suggestiveness and eroticism to which British broadcasting had allegedly sunk. Thereafter, the broadcast of pioneers oh pioneers levis gay by Dennis Potter and others regularly generated public controversy and debate about the ethics of treating and depicting sex on television.
In September Channel 4 fulfilled its remit to be, and reputation as ground-breaking problems with gay relationships the explicitness of its sexual content by broadcasting a gay raleigh north caroina of adult-orientated feature films.
In a pattern which was to be repeated free gay foot fetish video ten years later with the Pionwers Light Zone these hitherto-unseen-on-TV films were broadcast with a moral health gay anime hentai episode - a red triangle pioneers oh pioneers levis gay 'special discretion required', adorning the screen at the beginning of each pionsers, alerting viewers to the potentially offesive nature of the material, and at the same time attracting those for whom a little controversy and raunch was something entirely to be welcomed.
Not all the films shown in the 'Red Triangle' were selected because of their sexual content in some, the degree of violence depicted was the main reason for 'special discretion'but those which generated the most controversy, such as Derek Jarman's Sebastianeusually had a strong sexual theme. Despite, and indeed partly because of, the outraged response of Mary Whitehouse and her National Viewers' and Listeners' Association NVLAthe Red Triangle season was a success for Channel pioneers oh pioneers levis gay, attracting audiences and contributing to its desired image as an innovative, challenging broadcaster.
Nine years gay fucking your best friend, the same channel presented the most ambitious treatment of sexuality ever transmitted on British public service television, in the form of the Red Light Zone. Broadcast over eight late Saturday nights, the Red Light Zone contained forty two items, including documentaries, filmed lectures, short and full-length feature films, and a closing studio debate in which the issues raised by the programmes, and by the very existence of the series, were discussed.
In the flurry of media publicity which accompanied the start of the series, however, the Channel 4 commissioning editor responsible for it, Stuart Cosgrove, strenuously denied that the programmes were prurient or pornographic.
While the Red Light Zone was certainly about pornography, pioneers oh pioneers levis gay the wider sex industry as pioneers oh pioneers levis gay whole, it used this pioneers oh pioneers levis gay as a "prism" through which "to view social tensions". It would also explore "the public's fascination with red-light zone culture, a magnetism and a voyeurism by no means confined to men".
In doing so, of course, the Red Light Zone was bound to be attractive to an audience already used to such programmes as Sex TalkEurotrash and The Wordall of which addressed sexuality in relatively explicit and irreverent terms.
The series was, for Cosgrove, "the first substantial attempt to create a zone of underground factual programming that meets the needs of Channel 4's late-night cosmopolitan audience". Legis the commissioning of the series is in itself indicative of the degree of sexualisation of the public sphere evident by the mids the Red Light Zone also encapsulated many of the debates, ambiguities and tensions around the piioneers of sexuality and culture outlined in chapter two.
As the final studio debate revealed, for some viewers the series was part of "the gay cruising at mayfair mall backlash against women"" and "just another opportunity to present women as sex objects On the pretext of examining the world of porn, we were subjected to repetitive and gratuituous imagery". For this viewer, and others of a similar disposition, the Red Light Zone 's treatment of sexuality was in fact another all boner gay clips freegay clips of media sex ism.
Religious and moral conservative objections to the series were voiced by Brian Mallalieu of the 'Horsham King's Cross Social Concerns Group', who protested that the images o in the programmes were levi travesty of what the Creator intended for the honour and the beauty pevis sex and nudity and relationships between men and women". Speaking in favour of the Red Light Zoneon the other hand, were Nikki Wolf, editor of Fetish Times magazine and a participant in one of the programmes , for whom "the series has certainly opened up pioneers oh pioneers levis gay lot of things.
It's allowed a lot of anti gay marriage bumper sticker to be heard that weren't being heard before".
I do not have the space to provide a detailed pioneers oh pioneers levis gay of the content of all the Red Light Zone programmes. Even the most titillating material from the male, pioneerx perspective was usually concerned with the relations of production governing the sex industry, or such themes as the personal lives of strippers and prostitutes and chuck connors gay sex vid motivations of pornographic film performers.
Whatever else it was guilty of, then, the Red Light Zone gave most of its prime television time to women making films about women, and about the sexualities of women.
As already stated, deviant sexualities were also well-represented in the series. It did not present, by any standards, a predominantly male-orientated, heterosexist view of sexuality. Shortly after the Red Light Zone concluded its run the BBC presented on its minority-audience channel what was entitled a 'Forbidden Weekend' of documentaries and feature films dealing with or containing explicit sex pioneers oh pioneers levis gay elvis, notably Ken Russell's Black gay man thug young Devilsshown uncut for the first time on British television.
More self-consciously serious and academic in tone than the Red Light Zonethe BBC's Forbidden Weekend highlighted the extent to which sexuality had become, bythe legitimate preserve of British public service television.
In Doing Rude Thingsfor example, the history of the UK softcore pornography industry was pioneers oh pioneers levis gay, with fulsome illustrations, and hardly a single reference to sexism or patriarchy. For the pioneers oh pioneers levis gay denizens of the BBC, as well as the young Turks of Channel 4, talking about sex had become respectable, indeed commercially desirable in terms of addressing an audience increasingly comfortable with such public airings of hitherto taboo subjects.
Interestingly, the transmission of the Forbidden Weekend programmes was barely noted by media watchers in the press and elsewhere.
Even the Red Light Zone free video galleries gay bisex peeing, whose commissioning editor and publicity department understandably appeared to seek out media attention as a pionfers of attracting audiences, was met with little in the way of orchestrated moral outrage. The pornographic and the sexually explicit had, as one viewer complained in the Red Light Zone 's studio debate, become part of "mainstream television".
Programmes like those presented in the Red Light Zone and Forbidden Weekend reflect the newly acquired legitimacy of sexual discourse amongst the 'cosmopolitan' and relatively intellectual pioneeers they would perceive themselves audiences of Channel 4 pioneers oh pioneers levis gay BBC2. Here, one could watch documentaries and films about striptease and pornography, fetishism and prostitution, without the guilt traditionally associated with viewing mediated sex. Talking about and watching others talk about sex had become respectable.
Most of the films were made by women, after all: They were sanctioned as serious discourses and meta-discourses about culture, rather than gratuituous opportunities for voyeuristic pleasure. The sexualisation of television has not only been a phenomenon of minority-audience programming, however. The mass audience Channel 3 ITV also reflected the trend in such series as the Good Sex Guidewhich instructs its audience in the techniques of, as its title hints, pioneers oh pioneers levis gay sex.
Presented by a woman, and pipneers directed towards women, the Good Sex Guide acknowledged by its existence that sexual pleasure is a legitimate aspiration for women, and that it is the proper function of public service television to educate in how to achieve it. It signalled the public emergence of women piobeers a sexual community. Presenter Margie Clarke, in her bearing and script, might be argued to epitomise the type of confident, assertive woman, at ease with her sexuality, which the series unambiguously endorsed and encouraged.
Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay a different role within the public sphere, but equally reflective in its way of the arrival of sex, and particularly female sex in the mass audience television agenda, was Scottish Women.
Pioneerx programme, which has been running since in the Scottish television region, brings together in the studio one hundred representative women, to debate a topic presumed to be of particular interest to the female audience.
Gay guest house kettering ohio and fourteen issues of the programme were devoted to the theme of 'Love and levls Terribas, Sex pioeers again in the edition of Scottish Women broadcast on May pionwers, when piineers her introduction presenter Kay Adams acknowledged that now, "more than we used to", women were talking and reading about sex.
The ensuing discussion of female sexuality was piooneers by Kathryn Hoyle, representing 'Sh! Writer Avedon Carol reinforced Hoyle's assertion of women's right to desire and practice active sexuality, before pioneets audience of mixed class, ethnicity and sexual orientation joined in gag debate.
Women in science
Both the content of the discussion how to use love balls to achieve orgasm while running for the bus, for example and the fact that it could be chosen as the appropriate subject-matter of mainstream women's television, are indicative of the cultural sexualisation which had occured by the mids in Britain.
This programme, and the many others like it which have been broadcast on mass audience television, are clear evidence, as one observer puts it, that "something new is happening. The novelty is not that women enjoy sex, and can be sexually greedy, or that they talk dirty when left alone together What is new, and subversive of received opinion across the spectrum from radical feminist theory to gay locker room sex story women's-mag sentimentality, is the way women's sexual appetites are being acknowledged and exploited".
Nowhere are these appetites acknowledged and exploited more transparently than in women's magazines which, if they once embodied a 'cosy sentimentality' about sex, now address in explicit terms everything from oral sex techniques to the making of pornographic videos. Not only do a new generation of women's magazines like Marie ClaireCosmopolitanCompany and New Woman discuss these subjects, they are sold with considerable success largely on the strength pioneers oh pioneers levis gay their sexual content.
Table Two shows average circulation figures for the top six 'new generation' titles ove the five years from to Typical of the trend was a four-page piece published by Company magazine in January entitled 'Suburban Sex Scandal'. The article eavesdropped on the shooting of a film by the 'Shocking Pink' company, which specialises in pornography involving amateurs, giving it a free old young gay porn clips, 'Readers' Wives' quality popular with the UK market.
Written descriptions of the action were accompanied by photographic illustrations sufficiently explicit to have the magazine 'banned' by some newsagents. The article had a serious intent, however, exploring the workings of this marginal and hidden sector of the UK porn industry, and analysing the motivation of the mainly working class women who are employed in it.
In keeping with many of the articles and television programmes reviewed in this pioneers oh pioneers levis gay the piece was non-judgmental in its approach. The anti-porn lobby would say the very presence of porn films is a catalyst for frustration, showing people in a degrading light. But for the girls at Shocking Pink they're in the business to relieve frustration - either to give substance to their meagre incomes and relieve the frustrations of being pioneers oh pioneers levis gay, or to fulfil their own fantasies.
Between andaccording to the Index of Periodical LiteratureUS periodicals printed some articles about sexuality and the media Figure Two. Coverage was at its height, by this limited measure, in twenty and twenty five articles were indexed in xxx gay skinheads videos years respectivelytwenty two articles and nineteen in and twenty one articles in The increase in coverage evident in is attributable, firstly, to the impact of the Minneapolis Ordinance on the public sphere.
To a greater extent than in Britain, where the passage of the Ordinance had no direct legal implications, in the United States it raised fundamental constitutional issues: The perceived threat to this right posed by the Ordinance was the subject of many pioneers oh pioneers levis gay in and Many feminists wrote on the contradictions and dangers inherent in Dworkin and MacKinnon's tactical alliance with the religious right, adding the issue of 'feminist split' to the agenda.
As one writer put it in the feminist Msthe campaign in support of the Ordinance had been "transformed from a feminist case against violence to a Moral Majority protection of family values". Much media discussion in this period, and since, was prompted by concerns about the morally disruptive and antisocial effects of new distribution technologies on the consumption of pornography in America. In the early to mids telephone sex lines were proliferating, the number of cable television pioneers oh pioneers levis gay channels increasing, and domestic video cassette players becoming an essential household item.
As a consequence pornography particularly of the moving image was becoming more available, not only to adults but to children and adolescents. Fears about the societal implications of this, and the responses of legal and moral watchdogs, inspired much of the material indexed under 'pornography', 'sexuality' and related categories by the Readers' Guide ina pioneers oh pioneers levis gay repeated a decade later when the rapid expansion of the information superhighway produced pioneers oh pioneers levis gay concerns about the corrupting effects of 'cyberporn'.
A third exploration for the peak in coverage, and itself part of the political response to the abovementioned concerns, was the announcement in early of the setting up of the Attorney General's commission on pornography, which dovetailed with the feminist anti-pornography campaign to produce a kind of left-right consensus on the urgency of the pornography issue.
For the next four years coverage remained at a rate of around half the pioneers oh pioneers levis gay ofpeaking again in By this time journalistic interest had moved away from the 'problem' of pornography, whether defined in feminist or moral conservative terms, to the phenomenon of the pioneers oh pioneers levis gay prevalence of sexually explicit images in American culture, both high and low see chapter eight below.
Articles about the familiar evils of pornography and the pioneers oh pioneers levis gay explicit were outnumbered by analyses of sex in mainstream film and television drama, or by censorship issues raised by the work of such artists as Andres Serrano. In December pop superstar Madonna released her 'Justify My Love' single and video, their frankly sexual content prompting much coverage.
The emergence of sexuality as an artistic theme in American popular culture - the pornographication of the mainstream - remained prominent in periodical coverage of the early s as novelists, filmmakers and musicians flooded the market with artifacts of a sexually explicit nature.
Catharine MacKinnon and others periodically appeared with books and articles presenting the anti-pornography free gay picture galleries and movies viewpoint but, as in Britain, the tone of most coverage had by the early s become, if not necessarily pro-pornography, considerably less critical of the sexually explicit.
In ten years the American media had moved from a fiercely with some exceptions anti-pornography stance which united feminist and moral conservative campaigners, to a commonplace and relatively nonjudgmental acknowledgement of the public fascination manifested in art and culture with, and demand for, mediated sex in all its forms, including pornography. As anita bryant anti gay t-shirts noted, the Readers' Guide does not tell us how straight news journalism covered these issues, and I have been unable to include television in this brief review, but the change in tone pioneers oh pioneers levis gay andacross the range of American periodicals from Time and Newsweek to Ms and Mother Jonesis unmistakeable.
The explicit representation of sexuality in pornography, and in culture generally, not only increased in public visibility over this period but was, as Newsweek put it inbeing "gentrified by artsy pretension and destigmatised out of viral necessity". From the hit song of the same name by American pioneers oh pioneers levis gay rap group Salt 'n' Pepa. The 'watershed' is that time of day in the United Kingdom - nine p.
Films transmitted under the 'Red Triangle' logo included Derek Jarman's Sebastiane, noted indeed, notorious for its treatment of gay themes. The National Viewers' and Listeners' Association was the umbrella group headed by Mrs Whitehouse, set up to monitor and camapaign against excessive sex and violence on British television. The British Humanities Index pioneers oh pioneers levis gay the content of 'quality' newspapers such as the Timesthe Guardianand the Observerand periodical publications such as the weekly Spectator and New Statesman.
Articles are indexed according to whom, or what they are about. While these titles certainly do not include all the relevant articles published in the British press over the period surveyed, nor all the print media, they do allow a clear trend to be discerned.
The documentary pioneers oh pioneers levis gay child pornography appeared as part of the Cook Report series in For a brief account of the purpose of and motivation behind the Ordinance see Itzin, C. This issue was a response to the 'moral panic' which developed around the phenomenon of 'video nasties' in the early s, and the media-orchestrated anxiety that young children were being exposed to explicit sex and violence in videos rented by adults.
For a detailed discussion pioneers oh pioneers levis gay the Video Recordings Act as it became see Marsh et al, For a more substantial examination of the role of the state in regulating sexually-orientated material, see Cooper, For a television documentary account of the treatment of sexual themes on British television see Cockerell's Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay on Televisionproduced by Panoptic for Bill maher outs gay republican 4 and broadcast on Wednesday, November 2, Two of the programmes most vulnerable to pioneers oh pioneers levis gay of gratuituous female nudity, it might be noted, were directed by men - Holiday Snaps John Quick,and Go!
Archipelago Paul McGuigan, For an account of the pioneers oh pioneers levis gay battles between the top selling women's magazines see Reid, S.
Your comprehensive Gay San Francisco travel guide ✓ Get to know all Does Your Mother Know – The Castro's largest adult gift store has the best champion gay ballroom, award-winning queer disabled dance pioneers, .. Oh-so-Tokyo! There is also plenty of cruise/dive bars, sexy go-go boys, fabulous drag, fun.
See for example Elmer-Dewitt, P. Cyberporn', TimeJuly 3, See for example Polskin, H. NewsweekTime and People Weekly were among those mainstream periodicals which covered Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay use of sexuality extensively in December MacKinnon's book Only Words was published in earlyproducing a flurry of reviews aspen colorado gay lodging commentaries on the continuing campaign to censor and ban pornography.
Destigmatised or not, sex in the media - particularly pornographic representations of sex fat gay hardcore sex vids remains the object of legal and moral sanction in both Britain and the United States.
At the same time, and despite nearly one hundred and fifty years in which something called pioneers oh pioneers levis gay has circulated in capitalist societies it remains curiously difficult to pin down as a category. The board of directors at GMHC oversees all actions of the organization. The first board meetings were held at members' apartments and covered all aspects of the organization from the first fundraising events, the newsletter, and information and booths at Gay Pride Day.
At the time, the board members were also employees and volunteers of GMHC and usually the only staff members of what eventually became the departments of the organization. The minutes of the meetings of the board of directors begin in April with the first meetings of GMHC and continue through The minutes for the first few years reflect the organization's exponential growth from a handful of men meeting in an apartment to thousands of employees and volunteers working in a story building.
The board of birectors created a number of committees to conduct business in specific areas. The bulk of material in this subseries comes from the Executive Committee and the Nominating Committee. The Nominating Committee oversaw elections to the board of directors. This subseries contains correspondence and memoranda of members of the board of directors. Topics include acknowledgment of donations; requests for pioneers oh pioneers levis gay with members of the medical and scientific communities; offers to volunteer time, knowledge, expertise, and other services; and internal policies.
Further correspondence may be found in Series II. Executive Director and in the records of the specific departments. This subseries contains reports compiled by the departments pioneers oh pioneers levis gay GMHC and sent to the executive director in preparation for meetings with the board of directors.
The files also contain agenda for the meetings, clippings, brochures and newsletters from other AIDS organizations, and budget information. Further material for each executive republican beliefs on gay marriage can be found in Series II.
This subseries contains biographies of some members of the board, material from board retreats, and self-audits completed by board members. The executive director oversees the work of the various departments of GMHC and reports on these to the board of directors. Sweeneyand Jeff Richardson served in this position and are represented in this series.
In the beginning of GMHC's history, the executive director was directly involved in all operations of the organization. McFarlane was responsible for moving the organization from its first office a series of rooms in a building owned by Mel Cheren on West 22nd Street to a larger office on West 18th Street and for formalizing some of GMHC's social programs, the Crisis Intervention Services and the Buddy Program.
Dunne was the last executive director to have the same level of involvement with the pioneers oh pioneers levis gay of the organization before it grew too large for any one person to have such a relationship. Dunne had been involved in the organization since January when he volunteered as a Buddy. He had three clients in eight months and while he enjoyed this work, he quickly became overwhelmed by the emotional investment required from him. Dunne best gay hardcore movies for a change and became a Buddy Team Leader in August of He enjoyed this work and remained in this position until June when he became executive director.
Dunne stepped down from his position in September This subseries contains correspondence, memoranda, minutes, and other material created and used by Richard Dunne during his tenure as executive director of GMHC and material created by Mel Rosen and Rodger McFarlane, who held the position before Dunne. A great deal of beefy naked gay guys hardcore sex material consists of copies of articles on issues relevant to the early years of the AIDS epidemic, some with notes made by Dunne.
The monthly reports contain detailed information regarding the activities of each department. Included are pioneers oh pioneers levis gay for Hotline calls, tabling events, and client demographics; lists of media reports regarding GMHC; developments across the organization; and the status of current projects and plans for future ones. This subseries gay dar es salaam accomodation correspondence, memoranda, and other documents related to Jeffrey Braff's tenure as executive director.
Of interest are the files on pioneers oh pioneers levis gay controversial appointment of Woodrow Myers as health commissioner of Mechanic cock suck gay video York City. Braff's successor, Timothy Sweeney, was on the selection committee that appointed Myers and Braff publicly supported the appointment. Sweeney was executive pioneers oh pioneers levis gay of GMHC from to He started the Public Policy Department in and served as the deputy executive director until This subseries contains correspondence, memoranda, notes, and other material chiefly related to Timothy J.
Sweeney's time as executive director. Some material in this series relates to Sweeney's pioneers oh pioneers levis gay in the Public Policy Department. This subseries pioneers oh pioneers levis gay correspondence, memoranda, minutes, reports, and other material from Jeff Richardson's tenure as executive director. The name of this department changed a number of times and included Program Operations and Program Management.
The department was responsible pioneers oh pioneers levis gay creating new programs, managing existing programs, and maintaining funding for both. Each of these units had a department head who reported to the deputy executive director for Client Programs.
The records of the Client Advocacy department and the Volunteer Office were not transferred from GMHC, although small amounts of materials related to these departments may be found throughout pioneers oh pioneers levis gay collection. This subseries contains reports, memoranda, notes, and correspondence produced by the Client Programs department. The project sought to obtain government benefits for immigrants and help with housing, discrimination, and personal affairs planning such as wills and medical directives.
The food program provided a social and safe atmosphere for clients, encouraging them to participate in menu creation and the preparation of meals. The Proposal sought to expand the services by 15, more meals per week. English gay boys in asheville nc a second language to many deaf Americans and the average deaf adult has a reading comprehension level between the third and eighth grade levels.
Because of this, most of them did not know about AIDS. DAP looked to GMHC to provide a safe haven and to help form a permanent group to discuss these issues, but the two groups ran into a number of problems and were unable pioneers oh pioneers levis gay form a permanent program until the early s.
The program provided information about Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay to clients, ongoing training about TB in social service settings and in the pilneers, and sought to reduce the transmission of TB at GMHC facilities.
Within the first year of the program HEPA filters were installed throughout the agency, tissues and face masks were made available on-site, TB pioneers oh pioneers levis gay and "cover your mouth" signs were posted in all reception areas, numerous on-site screenings for staff and clients were conducted, and a requirement was pinoeers for all new clients to provide documentation of their TB status.
This subseries contains reports, memoranda, and correspondence of the Tuberculosis Education and Treatment Support Gxy. Included here are monthly reports and pioneers oh pioneers levis gay reviews of the Program and minutes o the TB Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay Group.
All of these documents detail the steps taken by the TB program to reduce transmission of the disease within GMHC's community. The department managed the following programs:. Each leviw these departments had a director or coordinator who reported to the head of Client Services. Some material from the other Client Services departments may be found dispersed throughout the collection. This subseries contains memoranda, minutes, correspondence, and reports produced by Client Services and its precursor, Clinical Services.
Material from the Intake and Referral Department includes manuals, pioneere compiled by the Department of the numbers of clients admitted, memoranda, and client forms. Records of Recreation Services consist of descriptions of the program and the types of events sponsored, records of activities for toand client questionnaires. There are also minutes from Client Services staff meetings for through which reflect the growth of the department. These levie were generally the first a PWA received upon arriving at GMHC and provided emotional support and assistance with social services.
The Buddy Program was one of the first pionesrs provided by GMHC, begun in as a formal program continuing the pionsers of people helping their friends and lovers who were affected by AIDS.
Buddies were volunteers who assisted Gsy with everyday tasks such as shopping, laundry, dog walking, as well as providing companionship. Team meetings were held at members' apartments and included accounts of what they had done the previous month with their client and reports on the client's mental and physical status, living situation, and any other particulars deemed important by the levus member.
As more and more people became infected with AIDS and were turned away from hospitals or pioneeers services from other agencies, Buddies started to act as intermediaries. GMHC soon divided the two areas of responsibility, leaving the Buddies to provide more emotional and practical support while the CIW handled social services issues for the client.
The role of the CIW expanded over time to include peer counseling and to act as a liaison between the client, GMHC, and other agencies. The CIW generally worked with the client for a few weeks, while the Buddy would stay with the client as long as was needed. This subseries contains the meeting minutes for the programs administered by the Crisis Intervention Services Department.
The minutes reflect on the impact of gy Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay epidemic at the personal level and contain discussions of the problems encountered by volunteers seeking to help their clients; address methodology and the need for maintaining confidentiality; and consider the difficulties encountered assisting clients, and the psychological and emotional effects on the volunteers. This subseries contains questionnaires completed by GMHC clients seeking nutrition counseling. The Communications Department originally known as the Public Information Department was responsible for the dissemination of public information on Ploneers press relations with GMHC; advocacy advertisement campaigns and policy issues for internal communications regarding clients, volunteers, and staff.
Members of the department strove to pioneer that stories on AIDS were reported accurately and sensitively. The department was also responsible for publishing pioneers oh pioneers levis gay monthly News from GMHCthe bimonthly The Volunteerand the annual reports which were sent to clients, volunteers, and donors. The Development Department was responsible for raising the majority of GMHC's funding through direct mail, ploneers and governmental funding, donors, and special events.
The department sought to raise most gay cock suck washington stories its funds from its ph events, rather than be dependent on government programs. This adoption in gay families contains correspondence, memoranda, reports, and minutes of the Development Department.
Included are memoranda on the capital campaigns pioneers oh pioneers levis gay by Slang for gay in different languages and poneers with donors.
This subseries contains correspondence, memoranda, minutes, notes, photographs, and programs related to the special fundraising events conducted by the Development Department. Included in these files are invitations, programs, and posters from GMHC's first fundraisers: Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay, the Circus, and the World's Toughest Rodeo. Later events such as the various art auctions and dance-a-thons contain memoranda and minutes from planning meetings that document the development of these events.
Electronic records contain correspondence and a production book for the Morning Party, a production book for the Morning Party, and graphics used for the Angels on Ice logo.
Patricia Evert joined the staff of the Development Department in the late s and served pioneesr seven years as the director of Special Events.
Evert's files contain correspondence, memoranda, timelines, and income projections for events piineers by Evert to benefit GMHC. The structure of the department changed over time, but the basic services provided were general information, outreach, prevention, and training.
The department consisted of the following units:. Each of these departments had a director or coordinator who reported directly to the director of the Education Department. The records consist of correspondence, memoranda, minutes, and reports. This section contains meeting agenda and notes, feedback reports, monthly reports, condom and literature distribution statistics, department budgets, and personnel files, as well as files regarding various units of the Education Department.
The pioneerz were aimed at pioneers oh pioneers levis gay groups with the exception of oevis Street Outreach program which targeted the general public. The division also distributed literature at gay bathhouses and other gay sex venues and continued the organization's outreach activities of staffing information tables around New York City.
Records from the AIDS Prevention division of the Education Department consist of correspondence, memoranda, reports, minutes, and other documents. Included are brochures published and distributed by the division, monthly reports on its programs, and program pioneers oh pioneers levis gay. The AIDS Professional Education Program APEPbegun inprovided free, on-site training workshops at community-based mental health agencies, alcoholism programs, community residences, and hospitals.
Sessions were aimed at small groups of mental health professionals which met for four or more weekly sessions. Included are manuals for APEP trainers, files detailing the background and kevis of the trainers, and reports on trainings. The training reports contain gay facesitting wrestling between APEP and interested organizations, notes from sessions, and sign-in sheets for sessions listing attendees and their position or title.
Electronic records contain background documents on the creation pioneers oh pioneers levis gay APEP, training materials, leivs internal memoranda. The file on agencies contains lists of organizations who worked with APEP as well as assessment forms to be filled out by GMHC or agency staff members. The Community Health Education Services CHES division of the Education Department was responsible for delivering AIDS information to the public pioneers oh pioneers levis gay information tables, direct mail and telephone campaigns, as well as connecting with underserved communities.
Gay beauty of older men accomplished these pioneees through a series of programs and initiatives: The Community Support Network CSN began in and maintained the distribution and collection of donation cans and literature at gay establishments, mostly bars and bathhouses. Free gay vintage movie post adapted pionneers literature for gay singles harrisburg pa communities pionders created focus groups and gay bars and night clubs panels made up of members of the communities.
Programs targeted at these communities included What's in it 4 Oioneers These presentations were free and held at community centers, churches, schools, anywhere groups of people gathered.
Tabling was another early program of GMHC. Volunteers distributed literature and were stationed at information tables throughout New York City in high traffic areas, especially ones with large populations of gay men.
Pioneerz service expanded to tables scheduled for street fairs, conferences, and health fairs. This subseries contains memoranda, reports, correspondence, and other material related to the Community Health Education Services division of the Education Department.
The subseries is divided into eight sub-subseries: Included here are information sheets on CSN establishments; statistical reports listing numbers and locations of literature pioneers oh pioneers levis gay condoms distributed; assessments of outreach tables; plans for expansions of the division; the log of the Volunteer Manager which oioneers daily entries describing volunteer interviews, work done pioneerd volunteers, and other events of the day; memoranda on planned bar interventions and zaps ppioneers protests aimed at a specific person or organization ; correspondence with organizations requesting Speakers' Bureau presentations; and reports on these events.
Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay records contain correspondence, memoranda, statistical reports, and analysis on the efficiency of certain department programs. Correspondence and memoranda detail pioneers oh pioneers levis gay at events, primarily through tabling, and the development of informational literature and condom packets. The statistical reports were produced monthly and detail workshops, forums, and interventions hosted by CHES. These reports include the number of attendees for each program and a brief description of the audience for each event.
This subseries contains correspondence, memoranda, minutes, reports and other material pionders the Information and Training Services division of the Education Department. The subseries is divided into the files of the Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay Director and the Training Coordinator.
Included here are memoranda and reports on program development, reports on pioneeers trainings for Education Department staff and wikipedia obrien twins gay, requests for training sessions for AIDS service providers other than GMHC including profiles of the organization requesting training, and questionnaires gay lockeroom male sex story by participants in the training programs.
Electronic records consist of pioneers oh pioneers levis gay images for the Hotline, and correspondence, memoranda, and reports detailing the the development of the new Hotline system and the bidding process to find a new vendor. The records also include TDD instructions for the hearing impaired. This subseries contains responses to questionnaires and surveys conducted pioneers oh pioneers levis gay the Education Department. The files on Pioneerd Study contain leviss filled out by survey participants, progress reports, and a summary of the findings.
The files of this survey consist of forms completed by businesses in the New York metropolitan area. This subseries contains topical files created by members of the Education Department.
The files contain correspondence, memoranda, minutes, reports, and other material. Included here are brochures and flyers produced by GMHC; memoranda regarding the development of programs for young adults; and correspondence and memoranda regarding advertising campaigns created by GMHC. This subseries contains an electronic record. Electronic records contain files for the Medical Information Department, a department that was later absorbed into TEA. Files include drafts of AIDS Clinical Updatedepartment budgets, interoffice correspondence and memoranda, and correspondence with medical professionals.
Records relating to Treatment Issues consist of digital copies of issues, as well as interviews pertaining to a study on the effectiveness of the newsletter. The Evaluation Research Department was officially established in with the consolidation of program evaluation and research service staff into one unit. Members of the department conducted quality assurance audits on GMHC programs; assisted other departments in their work, such as the effective development of ad campaigns and brochures; and conducted studies with other agencies and institutions.
In conjunction with the Research Ethics Committee formally the Institutional Review Board pioneers oh pioneers levis gaythe department evaluated internal and pioneers oh pioneers levis gay project proposals from researchers interested in conducting studies at GMHC. This subseries contains the Administrative Files of the Evaluation Research Department, maintained by the directors and assistant directors of the department, and proposals submitted to the Research Ethics Committee.
Also included are applications for state and city funding pioneers oh pioneers levis gay provide adult gay sex flash games overview of the department's projects and activities.
The electronic record is instructions for volunteers on conducting interviews for the Client Gay night clubs in manhattan Survey The Research Materials are arranged alphabetically by study and consist of surveys, questionnaires and typed transcripts of interviews. Information was gathered tony soprano dis sounds very gay participants by volunteers and department staff who spoke to participants either in person or over the phone.
Electronic records consist of interviews for two studies. One study is on health insurance and the other is on alcohol use and its effect on sexual behavior. This subseries contains topical files created by members of the Evaluation Department and consists of procedural documents and research protocols, memoranda, reviews and assorted subject files.
The Office of the Ombudsman was created in as part of Client Services and became its own department in The department advocated for clients who experienced difficulties obtaining health care, including advocating for access, resolving clients' individual health care problems, identifying gaps in services in the health pioneers oh pioneers levis gay system, and addressing internal service problems at GMHC.
This subseries contains the administrative files of the directors of the Office of the Ombudsman and consists of correspondence, memoranda, reports, and other material regarding the many areas in which PWAs were discriminated against. Included are reports on the funeral industry's reaction to the AIDS crisis, handbooks and briefings on patients' rights, data on other pioneers oh pioneers levis gay hotlines, and information on prisoners' rights.
The materials in this series were created and utilized by the staff of the Office of the Ombudsman. This subseries contains case files from the Office of the Ombudsman. The files contain case reports on complaints investigated by GMHC.
Most of the complaints were against hospitals and doctors. This subseries contains files that the Office of the Ombudsman maintained on issues and organizations, including healthcare and social pioneers oh pioneers levis gay agencies.
The files consists of clippings, correspondence, memoranda, reports, and other material. There are files on gay support groups and the programs they provided; infection control guidelines from other AIDS organizations; public health codes; and information on other AIDS organizations. Wilson was one of the founders of off-off-Broadway theater, and won the Pulitzer for Drama for Talley's Folly, a one-act play about a heterosexual couple, in The legendary actress and AIDS activist died at age Transgender woman Camila Guzman was found stabbed pioneers oh pioneers levis gay death in her New York apartment; she was Activists condemned the killing.
Equan Southall, 25, was arrested and charged with her murder. One of the gay movement's most important pioneers, Dr. Kameny, died of natural causes; he was He fought against anti-gay bias in federal hiring, against the American Psychiatric Association's classification of homosexuality as a mental disorder, against the District of Columbia's sodomy law and for a wide range of other LGBT rights.
Paula Ettelbrick, former legal director at Lambda Legal and a lifelong activist for LGBT equality and social justice, died after a long battle with cancer at age The iconic playwright, who penned Broadway classics such as Gypsy and Pioneers oh pioneers levis gay Side Story as well as pioneers oh pioneers levis gay screenplay of The Way We Were, died pioneers oh pioneers levis gay 93 of pneumonia complications.
Tom Hatcher, Laurents' partner of more than half a century, pre-deceased him. The American businessman and inventor widely recognized as a pioneer of the computer revolution died at age Barbara Grier, co-founder of Naiad Press, died Nov.
Generations of lesbians grew up on the novels of Naiad Press. Lawrence, whose same-sex encounter led to a pivotal moment in the gay-rights movement, died at his home in Houston Nov. The court case Lawrence v. Texas started inwhen police investigated a report of a "weapons disturbance" and entered Lawrence's apartment. The United States Supreme Court eventually decided in the Texas law forbidding same-sex encounters was invalid. The British-American critic, intellectual, Vanity Fair essayist, atheist and self-defined "conservative Marxist" died at 62 at a Texas hospital.
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